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Even though geoscientists are familiar with climate transitions of the geologic past, to day’s concern on global climate change (GCC) due to tropospheric heating, – a forcing by steadily rising accumulation of green house gases (like CO2, NOx, CH4, H2O as water vapour)- portends a blunt global threat to every facet of human life as well as other ecosystems.

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), a panel of scientists drawn from the various UN member countries, in a four volume report (one solely meant for chiefs of member nations of the UN) draws up a grim picture of the manner in which various systems and subsystems will be affected by GCC and prescribes a set of ‘urgent’ measures for mitigation and adaptation to minimize the impacts.In respect of Ground water (GW) resources, the IPCC report laments about lack of access to available and reliable data bases and non-uniform standards across the world and proposes to concerned nations to undertake research to monitor and create quality data sets on GW resources in order to come up with reliable forecasts.

Primarily, rising global temperatures in the coming decades are bound to alter the hydrologic cycle in various regions of the world and global rise in sea level, threatening the coastal population by beach erosion and consequent loss of property, livability and peaceful life but from salinity intrusion into the coastal and island aquifers. Other consequences of rising temperatures are higher rates of evaporation of water from continental sources (like, ponds, lakes and canals) and from the pedosphere, shift in the pattern of rain fall, modification of the agroclimatic zones and the sowing and harvesting seasons.

Given the same climate, factors influencing the ground water wealth of a province are physiography, geology, thickness of regolith, soil cover and the vegetation. Consequently, highland, midland and coastal land of Kerala may play newer roles in the degree of rain water infiltration runoff and transpiration.

Secondary effects of GCC are in respect of loss of natural nutrient rich top soil consequent on the shrinking of tree crowns and ground brush due to their wilting in the rise in average atmospheric temperatures and the extended duration of such seasons. The current tacit balance in the wet-and-dry season couple is what makes Kerala appear green and the farm economy one among the robust in the country, especially in respect of the share of spices, tea, and coffee and rubber production and hence the states GDP and the population dependent on it. The WHO pictures various types of deterioration of human or societal health as a tertiary consequence of GCC.

It is imperative that we design based on sound and reliable data sets methods, systems and processes for implementation to overcome the future water shortage in the domestic, agricultural and industrial sectors in order to survive in the new climate regime.


Climate Change (CC) phenomenon is nothing new to geo-science or geoscientists as there has been at least three ice ages in the recorded history of the planet Earth. However, the phenomenon of Green House Gas (GHG) driven CC, about which caused a huge concern among the community of nations, culminated in the creation of the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) under auspices of the UNGA,. The four part IPCC report (one part is entirely devoted to the heads of nations) as well as the frame work conferences that followed, have led to a new universal awareness and concern in the minds of lay citizens and the specialists alike.

In addition, by awarding the 2007 Nobel Peace Prize to the IPCC and to the documentary film – An Inconvenient truth– by Al Gore (former VP in the Clinton administration), the Nobel committee chose to highlight and loudly caution the impending dangers of global climate change (GCC) as a result of uncontrolled emissions of Green house gases (e.g., CO2, CH4, SOx, N2O etc) by burning of fossil fuels like coal and petroleum. As a consequence, the International community of governments, civil and scientific societies, industry, business and trade groups and media, have come in chorus asking for formulations for mitigation and adaptation of CC impacts. .

The primary geophysical impact of GCC is the global sea level rise (SLR), due to a). rise in the average atmospheric temperatures on the continents, b) volumetric expansion of oceanic waters due to radiative heating and c) the discharge of huge volumes fresh water to the global ocean (furthering the rise in sea level), from melting of ice in continental ice sheets and sea ice (for e.g., the western Antarctic sheet, Arctic sea ice, Greenland ice cover, glaciers in Alps and Himalayas and the Tibetan ice sheet/glaciers).The projected secondary implications (i.e., biophysical) of melting of ice and snow are many and practically inconceivable and incomprehensible by the vast majority of citizens.

Impacts of GCC and SLR

IPCC examined the various facets of consequences GCC, using Global Climate Models to analyze and predict the impacts. The climate of continents and the spatial pattern of climatic zones on the continents will under go a transition due to climate change. Extent of arid and semi arid zones will expand; number of hot days and cold nights will go up; average day time temperatures, and frequency of such days will rise, so does the colder nights. The water loss due to higher rate evaporation from open water bodies like ponds, lakes and reservoirs and canals will climb to higher proportions. The soil moisture, other wise a large pool of water in the soil, will undergo faster depletion due to higher air temperatures.

The rainfall intensity will go up along with a diminution of the frequency leading to unusual hydrologic floods, higher flood stages inundating the flood plains and adjacent low lying areas. Initially, the melting of the Tibetan and Himalayan glaciers will flood the rivers rising from these regions, affecting vast areas and populations in China, India, Pakistan, and Afghanistan. However, this temporary phase of “water feast” reaching levels of flood havoc will give way to one of “water famine”, once the ice caps are wasted and exhausted and the rivers slowly become ephemeral. The consequences of such ice melt are bound to affect directly or indirectly roughly one third of the world population.

The SLR will directly impact human settlements, infrastructure and industries in several scores small and large towns and cities and large metropolises in Coastal Land Zone (CLZ) manifesting as loss of coastal land and property and investments due to heightened coastal erosion and deeper reach of storm surges, deteriorating water quality of coastal aquifers, lagoons and estuaries, devastations to coastal and terrestrial ecosystems. Fall in the precipitation and consequent fall in infiltration and recharge of aquifers in the vast expanses of permeable coastal land around the world will push the saltwater-fresh water interface landward and consequent thinning of the freshwater zone and pushing to the brink the fresh water security of several hundred millions of people settled along the CLZ,

Yet another manifestation of CC is pictured as tertiary consequences affecting human health due to rise in incidence of vector borne diseases, heat stress on human psyche, decreasing water supply and falling sanitation in population centers and even civil disorder and CC refugees. Possible impacts arising out of GCC, level of probability of incidence and possible impacts are summarized in Table 1

Table 1, Effects, degree of likelihood and manifesting impacts (after Gilman et al, 2007)

Geophysical effect


Impacts likely to occur

Higher max. Temp., more hot days, and heat waves over nearly all landmasses

Very likely


Increased deaths and serious illness in older age groups & urban poor; increased heat stress in livestock & wildlife; increased risk of damage to a number of crops; increased electric cooling demand & reduced energy supply reliability.

Higher min. temp., fewer cold days, frost days and cold waves nearly over all the area.

Very likely


Decreased cold related morbidity & mortality; decreased risk of damage to a number of crops & increased risk to others; extended range & activity of pests & other disease vectors; reduced heating energy demand.

More intense precipitation events

Very likely


Increased flood, landslide, mudslide & avalanche damage; increased soil erosion; increased flood run off; increased recharge of some flood plain aquifers

Increased summer drying over most of mid-latitude continental interiors & associated risk of drought.



Decreased crop yields, increased damage to building foundations caused by ground shrinkage; decreased water resource quantity and quality; increased risk of forest fire.

Increase in tropical cyclone peak intensities, mean and peak precipitation intensities



Increased risk to human life and risk of increased infectious disease epidemics; increased coastal erosion and damage to coastal buildings and infrastructure; increased damage to coastal ecosystems such as coral reefs and mangrove swamps.

Increased droughts and floods associated with El Nino events



Decreased agricultural & rangeland productivity in drought and flood prone regions; Decreased hydropower potential in drought prone regions

Table 2 is a qualitative summary of vulnerabilities of systems (both natural and manmade) due to GCC related responses that are very likely to affect the civil society, civil order and political society and economy of nations. Orderly and peaceful life of citizens will be at risk due to GCC forced disruptions and therefore the preparations for facing the climate change challenges cannot wait any longer.

Table 2 Systems vulnerable to GCC


Manifest vulnerability


60% are degraded (e.g.,Wetlands of Kerala) and most severely stressed; e.g., Aral sea, Central Asia ; with past climate change ecosystems shifted to new zones; Human interference and blocking by infrastructure already stressed ecosystems do not shift locations; even a short excursion from normality can lead to collapse.

Water availability

Deprivation of 500 million people in semi arid and 200 million in arid zones; allocation and access are contentious; aquatic ecosystems and humans are affected by problems of untreated return flow entering fresh waters; agricultural intensification can lead to contamination of surface and subsurface water. By 2050, 42% of population may live in countries with inadequate fresh water stocks. Desertification due to increased drying will force 30 million to flee sub-Saharan Africa

Urban Forms

Only 20% of 1.6 billion lived in urban areas in 1900, but today it is 50% of 6.6 billion; by 2050 with population of 9-10 billion vast majority of large urban centers will be in global south; climate change will aggravate all nocuous aspects of urban life in global south.

Civil systems

A brew of climate change stress and related wants of city life may disrupt civil order of population centers; may result in chaotic civil life.


At 10% of world business activity tourism is a driving force in the economy; warmer climate taking over temperate regions will restrict out flow of warm air seekers; Ecotourism in south American states, tropical Kerala will gradually vanish by relocation or disappearance of flora; shifting climate will affect inflow of tourists; Mediterranean and tropical western seaboard of India can become unpleasantly hot. For nations developing tourism the stakes are especially high.

Indian scenario

In the late 80’s, during a toast, Mr. Gayum, President of the Republic of Male on a state visit to India, gifted of a copy of a treatise on “Sea Level Rise due to Green House Effect etc” (Barth and Titus, 1984) to late Mr. Rajiv Gandhi (then PM of India). This triggered soon a co-coordinated research program (Coordinator: late Prof. V.Asthana, JNU) to examine and assess the economic loss to the nation due to impact of sea level rise. Since then, much else did not happen in this area at least in India, in spite of the award of the Nobel peace prize-2007 to IPCC and Mr Al.Gore (producer of “the inconvenient truth”). Now under the PMO’s office, a set of 9 missions have been identified aiming to reduce the Indian CO2 emission and consequent impact on global climate. In addition, the Anna University (Chennai) inaugurated a Department of Climate Change Studies.

Table 3, Littoral Districts, and shoreline length, Tamil Nadu

Coastal district
Coastal length (Km)



In the coastal land (CL) based on erodibility, Thrivikramji (1979) identified two types of shorelines, viz., the low permeable low coastal land (LCL) delimited by a permeable shoreline composed of sandy beaches, strand plains, beach-dune ridge complexes, inlets connecting the coastal lagoons with the open ocean and high coastal land (HCL) characterized by an impermeable shoreline as the landside of which is made of rocks of Tertiary Warkalli series and and/or of Precambrian Crystalline rocks or the altered equivalents. As a consequence of SLR, the phreatic aquifers of the permeable coastal land bordering the permeable shoreline and the population (in large cities, municipal towns and villages) therein will warrant measures to secure at least drinking water supply.

LCL, distinguished by low relief (cumulative length=477 km; elv = <7.5 m), is underlain by vast thick sand sheets that originated as strand-plain-sandy-sediment (Thrivikramji, 1981), locally of glass quality (James, 1984), and is underlain by older Tertiary sediments. The tract is traversed by active- and paleo-stream channels, wetlands, inlets and lagoons. Out of the 34 Kayals, most of the major ones like Ettikulam, Vembanad (the largest and area =~205 km2), Kayamkulam and Ashtamudi and some minor ones, (or the wetlands) fall in the LCL. The Kayals of coastal land are very vibrant ecosystems and play a vital role supporting a varietal biodiversity. The coastal land and its natural systems play and contribute vastly to the states economy. For e.g., the traditional coir industry of Kerala as well as tourism industry depend heavily on the lagoons of LCL. The Naval Academy, Cochin Port, Naval base and air strip, thermal power station, Indian Rare Earth’s Ltd., KMML, TTP Ltd., and Trivandrum Airport etc. are also examples of fairly large investments in the LCL.

On the contrary, HCL (cumulative length=93 km) is essentially and mostly composed uplifted Tertiary sedimentary fill (e.g., Karichal, Varkala, and Kannur) or raised crystalline basement rocks (e.g., Kovalam and Ezhimala). The alternation of LCL and HCL longitudinally along the coastal land of Kerala is a reflection of the neotectonic activity that punctuated the evolution of coastal scenery of Kerala.

The midland of Kerala constituting 41% of the landscape is basically covered by thin or thick cover of primary laterite (alteration product of crystalline rock) or secondary laterite (derived from the transformation of tertiary detrital sedimentary rocks- the latter dominating the western edge of the midland. The highland has a drape of primary laterite at lower elevations while the tracts under higher elevations are underlain by the crystalline basement.

Jacob (1976) described the nature of the aquifers of CL. Hydrogeology of the region, is largely controlled by geology and climate. Like all sediments and sedimentary basins in particular, LCL is quite well known for occurrence of large aquifers of unconfined, shallow-confined and deep confined types. The coastal aquifers support drinking water needs of a very large segment of the population as well as other commercial and industrial houses.

Possible CC Impacts on Kerala

The CC impacts threatening Kerala, especially in the highland and midland zones, possibly are a) a shift in the spatial distribution and temporal frequency of precipitation, b) a rise in the number of hottest days and higher nightly low temperatures, c) rise in soil temperature and heavy loss of soil moisture and d) fall in recharge of the aquifer systems and e) river discharge. Due to unprecedented sand borrowing, the summer time river water discharge has declined manifold. Added to this, CC change will further aggravate the falling summer discharge to the disadvantage of ecosystems and other users of river water. A picture of systems and sub-systems of Kerala with a potential for CC fueled transitions are indicated in Table 4.

Table 4: Potential Impacts of GCC: Tamil Nadu.

High land


Coastal land

Natural forest:

Decrease in plant species diversity-consequent fall in animal species diversity- increasing dryness – higher wind and water erosion soil loss

Agro-biodiversity: harmed due to drier soil and drier air- decreasing latex yield in rubber plantations- decreasing homestead farm production – decline in livestock farming and milk production – decrease in food crop farming and out put –

Severe erosion of beaches in LCL- shoreline migrates eastward – beach front property and homes damaged- civic facilities like coastal roads, water supply lines, waste water disposal and sanitation facilities damaged- power standards and supply system uprooted

Soil and nutrients:

Loss of soil moisture due to extended days of drought and severe showery days – loss of soil and soil nutrients due to intense rain water erosion

Soil and nutrients:

Decrease in nutrients and increase in area under eroded soils- extreme wet and dry spells tend to erode top soil and nutrients

Salinity rise in soil moisture – Water table rise damages foundation of public buildings and homes – domestic shaft well water turns brackish – quality of public water supply sources decline.


Exposure of cardamom, tea, coffee, rubber and others to long warmer spells and heavy rainy spells – both adverse for these crops.


Decrease in yield from rubber, coconut, arecanut farms – decrease in soil moisture and air moisture- soil microbes change due to physical changes in soil

Salinity intrusion into aquifers- inlets and coastal wetlands – wetland ecosystems including paddy fields in LCL affected- plant and machinery in the manufacturing units ruin by salinity intrusions

Pests and vectors:

A jump in intensity of invasion- but durations may decline

Pests & vectors:

Density will jump but duration of activity may decline

Wetland fauna and flora go into environmental stress – due to disruptions unable to migrate or re-establish.


Bleak outlook- span of wet days decline and so is base flow days- decline of days reservoir staying at or near FRL – higher power demand due to rising demand for air-conditioning for extended periods; for pumping water from wells, irrigation and drinking water supply schemes.

Surface & ground water:

Decline in the duration of base flow in streams- aquifers get deeper- increase in kwh per /m3 of water lifted for use in farms, industry and homes. Dissolved ion content in water may go up due to decreasing dilution and higher evaporation loss of soil moisture.

Water in wetlands (kayals) , river channels, intra-costal water ways all suffer by higher salinity- aquatic animal and plant life under duress – many may become extinct – water supply system and sources suffer- disruptions in civic life and stress due to higher temperatures may make citizens prone to anger and violence- increasing violence and anarchy in the society.

The points listed in the table are no way soothing or comforting by any means. The first step to be initiated by the administration is educating the public about the negative consequences of CC and creating awareness among the citizens of measures in mitigating and adapting to a CC. Very plainly the advantages of anticipating SLR would be the avoidance of immediate loss and damage to the natural as well as manmade objects, services and facilities. On the other hand, if SLR is not worried about, the damages and loss consequent on the flooding and erosion of beaches, would go down as another disastrous natural event in the history of our nation

The primary impacts of CC in the coastal land zone of Kerala are caused by relative sea level rise and warming air temperatures. The SLR will tend to further the landward reach salinity into the lagoons through inlets, while the rising temperature will accelerate the evaporation and consequent upward spurt of salinity in the surface waters which also drive the water seeping into coastal Phreatic aquifers.

The coastal land zone of Kerala bordered by the western ocean and eastern coastal lagoons are linked together by inlets effectively making the lagoonal waters brackish or saline in summer months. The coastal land zone and the aquifers, very much like the midland and highland zones, will be exposed to warmer air and soil temperatures, rising sea levels from the seaside and landward shifting seawater-freshwater interface (salinity intrusion). Lower precipitation and consequent lower infiltration to the coastal aquifers will reduce the volume of drawable freshwater and raise the salinity of the lagoons to adversely affect the aquatic ecosystem.

This calls for renewed research endeavors to identify irrigation systems, design or spot new food crops maturing in short periods, crops with more yield per unit irrigation water and the like. For Kerala, this new research based design should cover the food, plantation and fruit crops. A case in the context is Scheme for Rice Intensification now practiced in parts of India, Thailand, Vietnam etc.

Lastly, in the context of CC, the vulnerability of the LCL of Kerala especially to storm surges, SW monsoon related coastal erosion and in fact the future make up of mud banks and tsunamis, needs to be assessed to create some adaptation or mitigation systems or processes.

CC Impact on Kerala’s GW resource

GCC will impact the Hydrological systems, world’s largest accessible source of freshwater for half of the world population for domestic, agricultural uses and hence of local and regional or national food security. It has been predicted that in tropical countries like India and Kerala in this context, intensities of precipitation are predicted to increase and shift spatially and frequencies to change temporally. Such shifts in rainfall will directly influence the river discharge stages, rate of percolation and recharge, soil cover and moisture in a warming atmosphere. All will harm the population; the intra-annual rainfall shifts may lead to fresh water shortages which shall affect the crop production and yields and food and water security.

Obviously the mitigation strategies to overcome such short comings will put extra demand on the GW. Kerala is no exception anyway. Table 5 is a compilation of hydrogeology framework of Kerala along with well density vis-à-vis the physiographic zonation and the projected CC impact. The large number of shaft wells (and now pumping wells) that supply to the domestic and homestead farm demands, will suffer due to falling water tables irrespective of the locations and zones. Currently, the summer season domestic water shortages are proverbial in the coastal land. The proto-peninsula like setting (surrounded on all three sides with sea water or brackish water) of most of the coastal tract is the express reason, while the over-drawal from LCL aquifers being the second. The over-drawal obviously triggers entry of brackish/saline waters and upward movement of the fresh/saline water interface of the aquifers.

According to one scenario, the western seaboard of India now enjoying the monsoon climate will go through fall in the frequency but an intensification of precipitation resulting in higher flood stages, vast inundations, rising soil erosion and consequent nutrient, pesticides, contaminants and fertilizer residues and sediment fluxes into the water systems of the coastal land to the disadvantage of the aquatic ecosystems native to the coastal land.

Table 5 Summary of hydrogeology in the physiographic zones, Kerala

(Aggregated from Water Atlas of Kerala, 1995, comments by author)


Coastal land, <7.5 m

Midland, 75.0-7.5 m

Highland, >75.0

CC Impact

Aquifer type

Shallow phreatic and deeper pressured;

Free GW.

Free GW

High adverse

Controlling lithology

Recent alluviam underlain by Tertiary sedimentary rocks

Lateritic aquifers, thickness 10.0-20.0 m

Primarily weathered zone; Deeper fracture and fault zones

Not appliacable

Water structure

Shallow GW tapped by shaft wells; filter point well in deeper aquifers

Water in artesian conditions, piezometric surface between 0.5-14.3 m amsl.

Larger diameter shaft wells, lithomargic clay between laterite and parent rock inclined to caving, warrants lining with laterite bricks or cylindrical concrete sections.

Larger diameter shaft wells; tube wells bore

Moderate to High

Water yield

Free flow of 270-360 lpm



High salination Potential

GW Provinces

LCL of beach alluviam and HCL of Tertiary sedimentary rocks

Laterite capped

Crystalline rock

All open to high to medium and adverse

Shaft well density

Range=90 -285/km2

av.= 200/km2

Range= 65-245/km2


Range= 25-197/km2 av.=70/km2

Scores to go dry partially or fully

Water quality

Higer TDS and chloride during summer in LCL

Especially in peninsula like tracts bounded by lagoon-inlet-sea. TDS in the range a few thousands in summer –brackish water.

Practically steady & unaffected

Practically steady & unaffected

High salination Potential

Water Related Data Status

But projected changes in spatial variability of mean annual rain fall are considerable but highly uncertain for most parts of the world. Despite the crucial importance of GW in domestic and farming sectors, there are very few models that take into account CC and GW related variabilities and recharge. Further, at present, GW is poorly represented in LSMs (Land Surface Models) in GCMs (General Circulation Models), primarily due to the difficulties in accessing the GW related national data sets that have generally limited duration and coverage or vary widel in the standards used in collection and recording. Only then, the GCOS – Global Climate Observing System- will become viable and dependable. GCOS though recognizes GW as an essential climate variable but goes on record that the data pertaining to GW from national and regional monitoring networks are neither exchanged nor managed properly. Now, under the initiative of UNESCO and WMO, the newly created IGRAC (International Groundwater Assessment Center) will become a clearing house for GW information on a global scale.


The GCC phenomenon due to steadily rising CO2 emissions has been unequivocally instrumental in warming the lower troposphere with far reaching and irreversible consequences to the global population. The chief among these are the rise in the atmospheric temperature, changes in the global climate especially in respect of shift in spatial and temporal rain fall distributions and frequencies, melting of glaciers and ice sheets, runoff of these waters along with added fluxes of sediment and contaminants derived from the land based soil systems into the oceans and raising the sea level.

The consequences to a state in the western seaboard of India like Kerala with 570 km long shoreline and tropical monsoon climate are manifold. A first assessment brings out the CC impact to Kerala which is an imminent and deep threat to the human systems and ecosystems of the state based in the HL, ML and LCL of Kerala. The food and water security of the citizens of the state are at danger.

This calls for research into the food and plantation crop eco-systems and collection of data of international quality one the one hand and design of the systems and processes aimed at mitigating and adapting to the climate change caused new environment especially in respect of altered water for domestic, agricultural and industrial uses. .


The survey of GCC fueled lower tropospheric heating, causing melting of glaciers and ice caps, and draining the waters into the oceans to drive the global sea level upward or a sea level rise etc are no longer in the realm of science fiction in the minds of nations and societies across the world. This is especially so after the publication of IPCC’s assessment reports (2007) and the Frame work meetings that followed. The emphasis in the reports is chiefly centered on the reduction of carbon foot print by curtailing the CO2 emissions (the chief green house gas). Several signatory nations of world agreed to reduce the carbon foot print and initiated mitigative and adaptive measures. For example Australia created a ministry to be in charge of Greenhouse gases. In India PMO has adopted a carbon foot print reduction strategy and under it several missions. Table 6 is a set of formulations or approaches addressing water resource management in a CC scenario.

Table 6. Water resource management strategies in CC adaptation framework

Raise water use monitoring in terms of production and climate rather than area.

Design likely changes in water allocation based on probability.

Enhance crop choice with newly developed tools to maximize efficiency & profit per unit water

Develop integrated water management, relevant strategic policies & new infrastructure reckoning CC

Design long term water sharing agreements incorporating CC

Develop CC included better understanding of a sustainable yield & environmental flows

Design and implement systems and processes to minimise water loss from storages, canals and irrigation systems

Develop optimized waste water recycling programs

Kerala, with the 570 km long shoreline and a densely populated coastal land which is home to a large number small and large towns and large population centres like Trivandrum, Kochi and Kozhikod, will have to take the lead in implementing many of the mitigation and adaptation strategies formulated by the IPCC. Though the midland and low highland of Kerala that contributes to a large chunk of the states GDP from agro-produce derive the advantages primarily from the current agroclimatic conditions, any shift to a changed climate may be ominous to the population and prosperity of the state. Educating the public, mission oriented data collection, systematic monitoring and reporting of GW quality and water table fluctuation trends periodically will enable to enhance the level of concern in the minds of public and the administration. In addition, the newly gathered data can be subjected to modeling and analysis to earn insights into the GW future of the state and the the country with similar climatic and physiographic settings. .


The foundation of my interest in CC phenomenon due to GHG emissions is as old as 1989, when I attended a workshop in the NIO on the same theme and as a follow up participated in the all India co-ordinated research (Coordinator: Late Dr. V.Asthana, JNU) launched by the MoEF, GOI during 90-92. I thank the CGWB (Trivandrum) for the invitation to participate in the workshop.


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